Sector Research

Academic studies and in-depth research reports focused on a wide variety of immigration-related topics. These documents are typically written at a high English level.

Labour Market Outcomes Among Refugees to Canada

Canada welcomed over 830,000 refugees from the 1980s to 2000s. However, their economic outcomes, especially the variation among major refugee groups, have not been examined comprehensively. Using the Longitudinal Immigration Database, this paper examines the labour market outcomes of refugees from 13 source countries with large inflows to Canada over the 1980-to-2009 period. The analysis first compares employment rates and earnings among refugees from the 13 source countries. It further compares each refugee group with economic-class and family-class immigrants who arrived during the same period. The results reveal a very large variation in employment rates and average earnings among the 13 refugee groups. Groups with low employment rates tended to have low earnings levels among the employed. Groups with low (high) employment rates and earnings among the men also tended to have low (high) rates among the women. Very little of the variation in earnings among refugee groups could be accounted for by differences in observable human capital characteristics, economic conditions or the program of entry to Canada. Privately sponsored refugees earned more than comparable government assisted refugees during the initial years in Canada. However, this advantage disappeared after a decade in the country.

The Wealth of Immigrant Families in Canada

This study documents the evolution of the wealth of immigrant families and of their Canadian-born counterparts from 1999 to 2016. The study uses data from Statistics Canada’s Survey of Financial Security. The study finds that increases in housing equity and in the value of registered pension plan (RPP) assets were the main drivers of wealth growth from 1999 to 2016. However, the relative importance of increases in housing equity was greater for immigrant families than for Canadian-born families. This reflects the fact that compared with Canadian-born families, immigrant families generally hold a greater share of their wealth in housing but a smaller share in RPP assets. While the increases in home prices observed since the late 1990s drove much of the growth in housing equity, the lower rates of return on financial assets observed after 1999 were a key factor underlying the growth in the net present value of RPP assets.

Imagine Canada’s Sector Monitor Charities & the COVID-19 Pandemic

This report summarizes the responses of 1,458 leaders of charities who answered our online survey between April 15th and April 28th.1 All responses are weighted by organization size, activity area, region, principal source of revenue, and the presence of paid staff to produce estimates more representative of charities overall. Historical comparisons are based on our first Sector Monitor, conducted in late 2009 / early 2010, just as the 2008/09 recession was ending and the long economic recovery beginning